Cbe Citation Rules For Essays


Author(s) (performing organization). Title. Place of publication: publisher or
     sponsoring organization; date of publication. Report number. Contract
     number. Total number of pages. Availability statement.


Cooper LN (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence RI).
     Theoretical and experimental research into biological mechanisms
     underlying learning and memory. Final progress report 1 Aug 88-31 Jul
     89. Washington: Air Force Office of Scientific Research; 1990 Apr 24.
     Report nr AFOSR-TR-90-0672. Contract nr AFOSR-88-0288;2305;B4.
     19 p. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA: AD-A223615.


Johns Hopkins University [JHU], Applied Physics Laboratory. Biomedical
     research, development, and engineering at the Johns Hopkins
     University Applied Physics Laboratory. Annual report 1 Oct 78-10 Sep 79.
     Laurel (MD): JHU; 1979 Oct. Report nr JHU/APL/MQR-79. 74 p.

The standard citation style guide book for the natural and physical sciences is the Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Author, Editors and Publishers, 7th edition, 2006. The CSE (Council of Science Editors), formerly the CBE (Council of Biology Editors), publishes the manual. We commonly refer to it as "the CSE Manual".

The biology department at IRSC recommends CSE format for papers written in the biological sciences.

Two types of citations are included in most research papers: citations within the text of the document and a list of reference citations at the end of the paper.

In-Text Citations:

The CSE Manual describes 3 different systems for citing within the text of a document: citation-sequence, name-year, and citation-name. IRSC instructors recommend name-year. [Note: The manual favors the citation-name system, so examples in the book usually follow that format.

Reference Citations:

The sources you use in your work are included as a separate list at the end of the paper, much like APA or MLA style.  The CSE Manual suggests using the title, "End References", for the list.

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